•No easy answer •Combination of interacting events • Heredity • Biology • Temperament • Environmental factors • Including poverty •Conclusion: humans develop and learn through the interplay between nature … For instance, maternal diabetes may lead to heart disorders, neural tube defects, and other malformations. Causes Of Learning Disability. Oxford: Oxford University Press. During this time, the embryo is highly vulnerable to these teratogens (possible link to section on teratogens later in the text). These may also entail risks. THREE SIGNIFICANT DEVELOPMENTS Our medical articles are the result of The characteristics of the developmental disorder have varying degrees of severity: embryonic death, malformations, growth retardation, or functional disabilities, such as neurological or physical disorders, may occur. They can hinder children from achieving their developmental potential, through adverse effects on learning, participation and access to information and services. Children with FASD have a variety of distinctive facial features, heart problems, and cognitive problems such as developmental disabilities, attention difficulties, and memory deficits. There are many factors or situations before or after birth which can lead to the abnormalities and disabilities in the children. Each of these stages is important for … WHO recognizes the significance of early interventions … Typically differentiated tissue is found dispersed in one or more non-typical locations in the body. A child with PDD may interact in unusual ways with toys, people, or situations, and may engage in repetitive movement. One common malformation is the urachal fistula after persistent connection of the urinary bladder with the navel, upon which urine is discharged by the navel of the infant upon activation of the abdominal press. It can cause a range of developmental, cognitive, and behavioral problems, which can appear at any time during childhood and last a lifetime. Children with autism develop differently compared to children who do not have this condition. About every 100th newborn comes into the world with a heart defect. Genetic factors have long been implicated in the causation of developmental disabilities. Most developmental disabilities are … Definition of Autism ; Autism Blog; Contact ... Development Stages of Autism . Developmental Biology: Understanding Normal and Abnormal Development . The stage of development most vulnerable to the influence of teratogens is the organogenesis of the 3rd-8th week of development during the embryonic period. Development refers to the lifelong process of changing and maturing. Systemic factors include capillary … In the event of a symmetrical double malformation, both fetuses have a complete set of organs, whereas, with an asymmetrical malformation, the uneven allocation leads to allocation to the more developed autosite with the less developed parasite, the development of which can be restricted to a tumor-like attachment in the form of a teratoma at the lowest level. Possible causes. In this overview, the organs are listed by their temporal sequence of development with possibilities for impairment. People with these disabilities may need extra help to achieve and maintain good health, which includes oral health. Inoculation of the mother against rubella. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. Respiratory tract (4th-16th – 40th week of development): the respiratory tract combines with the mucosa of the mouth and nose from the surface ectoderm, and the respiratory epithelium from the endoderm. Causes of Disabilities Disability can happen to Any one…at any age..and due to any Circumstances. Even in cases of known etiology the line between "cause" and "effect" is not always clear, leading to difficulty in categorizing causes. The neural tube forms (at 22 days), which becomes central nervous system Certain conditions are the result of genetic factors, other times exposure to toxins is to blame (things such as STDs or drug/alcohol exposure during pregnancy), and sometimes birth injuries can result in a developmental disability. Experts are not exactly sure what causes learning disabilities. Genetic disorders are the most commonly identified causal factor for intellectual and other disabilities, and include single gene disorders, multifactorial and polygenic disorders, and chromosomal abnormalities. Postnatal Causes of Developmental Disabilities in Children Aged 3- 10 Years -- Atlanta, Georgia, 1991 . Tobacco use Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0. (2008). and high relevance of all content. Of course, the effects of the teratogen depend on the dosage and duration of exposure, as well as the specific mechanism of action. Anorectal Malformations in Children, 49-63. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-31751-7_4. Developmental disabilities are severe, long-term problems. CNS, neural tube (3rd-32nd – 40th week of development): the CNS grows from the neural tube, which protrudes from the neurectoderm. Developmental disabilities include a complex group of disorders that cause physical impairments, intellectual disabilities, speech disorders, and medical conditions.Developmental disabilities are sometimes diagnosed at birth, but more often, are … The causes of developmental disabilities are varied and remain unknown in a large proportion of cases. Developmental disabilities can be caused by a number of factors, either alone or in combination with one another. Looks like you’ve clipped this slide to already. portion of blastocyst which will become the placenta. Fine motor/adaptive delay: Significant delays in activities such as self-feeding, toileting, and dressing are typically reported in children with ID 3. This results in structural or numerical chromosome defects that usually lead to the death of the gamete and (unnoticed) abortion. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Intellectual disability (now the preferred term for mental retardation) is a disorder characterized by cognitive delays. (2010). The first phase of prenatal development, encompassing the first two weeks after conception. organism is being injured or altered by a traumatic incident. organogenesis (3rd – 8th week of development), many malformations can arise from many causes. While the identification of children with developmental delay (see Box 1 on page 11 for definition) or disabilities is critical for the development of policies, strategic planning and service provision, it is important to acknowledge that children with disabilities rarely think of themselves as disabled. Developmental psychologists consider the process of human development as it relates to physical, cognitive, and psychosocial development. Stage 2 – School Ages. 1  Down syndrome is caused by an extra copy of the 21 chromosomes (meaning there are three chromosomes instead of the usual two) and impacts approximately 1 out of every 1,000 infants. At around 21%, malformations are the most common cause of child mortality and are also the primary cause of disabilities. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. Prenatal Development: Environmental Influences … During pregnancy if the … In … THE BIOLOGICAL AND. Two fetuses that have grown together due to the incomplete intertwining of the embryoblast in the blastocyst stage on the 13th day after fertilization have a double malformation, and are also called Siamese twins in reference to the famous pair of twins from Siam. During this time, the developing organs are especially vulnerable to teratogens depending on the peak of mitosis. The cause of congenital malformations is only known in 40-60% of cases: 15% of which are due to genetic factors such as chromosomal anomalies and mutations, 10% are due to external causes, 20-25% stem from combinations of genetic and external factors, and 0.5-1% are caused during the development of twins. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. Research shows that risk factors may be present from birth and tend to run in families.1 In fact, children who have a parent with a learning disability are more likely to develop a learning disability themselves.2 To … Social delays: Lack of interest in age-appropriate toy… Christine Bigby. The causes of germinal matrix hemorrhage is multifactorial, complex, and heterogeneous 16). For instance, clubfoot can result from the amniotic cavity being too narrow. The various movements of the organs involved during embryogenesis must also be considered: For instance, the kidney ascends while the testicles descend. (i) Before birth. Down Syndrome: Also known as trisomy 21, Down syndrome is the most common genetic anomaly during prenatal development. The most prevalent general groups of biological causes of intellectual disabilities are genetic transmission of traits (i.e., genetic disorders) and 16 chromosomal abnormalities. Become fluent in medicine with video lectures and Qbank. People with developmental disabilities are more likely than those who aren't disabled to encounter problems with Ontario's health-care system … 2021 Lecturio GmbH. Severe embryopathies, such as vision disorders, heart disorders, and mental impairment due to neural damage, may be caused by viruses (rubella, CMV, HSV, varicella virus, HIV virus), bacteria (syphilis from Treponema pallidum), and protozoa (toxoplasmosis from Toxoplasma gondii). A person is determined to have a developmental disability if at least one of the two following conditions exists: Intellectual disability . Germinal Stage (cont) ... » Short attention span, learning disabilities, memory problems » Slow reaction time » Distractibility » Restlessness » Hyperactivity –FAS and FAE occur 1 in 100 US births –Most common cause of mental retardation* –Leading preventable cause of birth defects in US* –No known safe amount of alcohol . Extremities (4th-6th – 9th week of development): the extremities are mesenchymal in origin, and also stem from the lateral plate mesoderm. The 3 primary stages of prenatal development are the germinal period, the embryonic period, and the fetal period. These may also be indications of a syndrome. Read more about the editorial team, authors, and our work processes. •Germinal period 10-14 days long, Embryonic stage 2- 8th week. Syndrome. Some of these genetic “causes” may also lead to clinical features besides autism, such as intellectual disabilities, seizures, and physical birth defects. This page covers both intellectual and developmental disabilities. due to increased functional requirements), which often leads to functional disabilities. Continued existence of an organ or part of an organ that, physiologically, only exists for a limited period during embryonic development. implantation. During organogenesis (3rd-8th week of development), the embryo is particularly vulnerable to teratogens. Iodation of drinking water and table salt prevents developmental impairments of the thyroid (cretinism). The … NCLEX®, NCLEX-RN®, and NCLEX-PN® are registered trademarks of the National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc (NCSBN®). All impairments of the organs during organogenesis (2nd-8th week of development) are referred to as an embryopathy. 4. Developmental disabilities are attributable to a cognitive impairment, physical impairment, or both. The most profound effects of prenatal alcohol exposure are brain damage and the resulting impairments in behavioral and cognitive functioning. Physical development, including fine and gross motor skills 2. They may be physical, such as blindness.They may affect mental ability, such as learning disabilities.Or the problem can be both physical and mental, such as Down syndrome.The problems are usually life-long, and can affect everyday living. The 3 primary stages of prenatal development are the germinal period, the embryonic period, and the fetal period. Your email address will not be published. During the Embryonic stage, it is still not recognizable as a human. They may be physical, such as blindness.They may affect mental ability, such as learning disabilities.Or the problem can be both physical and mental, such as Down syndrome.The problems are … Consanguinity increases the prevalence of rare g… Should the epithelia be unable to fully make contact, or if there is a lack of proliferation or a break-up of already forming coalescence zones, such as the medial nasal prominence and the maxillary process, the relatively common cleft lip and palate may develop (or partial manifestations: cleft lip, cleft palate) with an incidence rate of approximately 1:1000. Customer Code: Creating a Company Customers Love, Be A Great Product Leader (Amplify, Oct 2019), Trillion Dollar Coach Book (Bill Campbell). occurs when blastocyst sinks into the endometrium. The result may be malformations of the entire embryo, individual organs, or the placenta. Developmental Disability Definitions. Inborn errors of development: The molecular basis of clinical disorders of morphogenesis. Low birth weight, premature birth, multiple birth, and infections during pregnancy are associated with an increased risk for developing developmental disabilities in the fetus. Examples of medications that penetrate the placental barrier are thalidomide (resulting in malformations of the extremities, e.g. When embryonic tissue is found in a non-typical location, this is called. In 3-20% of cases, they are an indication of a severe malformation or are part of a syndrome. THREE PHASES OF PRENATAL DEVELOPMENTAL 1. MCAT is a registered trademark of the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC). Development disabilities can be defined as chronic conditions that originate in childhood, during the developmental stages. Each stage will open up possibilities for other developmental 'streams' (so if gross motor was a little slow, it may have been hiding a more advanced fine motor development). We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. The possible development of double malformations and identical twins must be emphasized during this phase. The term developmental disabilities was introduced in the late 1960s to describe clinical disorders and diseases that cause disability, begin early in life, and require supportive services. Primary prevention of developmental disabilities requires knowledge of the specific causes of these conditions. Get the facts from WebMD about its symptoms, causes, and treatments. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Picture: “Ischiopagus Tripus Conjoined Twins” by Khan YA. Pervasive developmental disorder is a term used to refer to difficulties in socialization and delays in developing communicative skills. Chapter 5: Developmental Disabilities: Causes and Classifications Prepared by Debbie Laffranchini, Instructor . Your email address will not be published. Picture: “Photograph of right forearm affected by birth defect Amelia” by Onearmedbandit86. The terms here refer to one organ, but may also refer to different systems in other contexts (e.g. Module 1 DSP Notebook Introduction to Developmental Disabilities R-02-01-16 9 . The NICHD Mission. Read more about the editorial team, authors, and our work processes. TBI is a broad term that describes a vast array of injuries that happen to the brain. Treatments for birth defects vary by disorder. Developmental disabilities cause individuals living with them many difficulties in certain areas of life, especially in "language, mobility, learning, self-help, and independent living". Lecturio is using cookies to improve your user experience. Cognitive, or intellectual developm… Genetically, they are equivalent to siblings. Image : “Children flatfeet” by FA RenLis. Foetopathies from this period can lead to functional disabilities, as the brain is especially vulnerable to teratogens. Prenatal development (from Latin natalis 'relating to birth') includes the development of the embryo and of the fetus during a viviparous animal's gestation.Prenatal development starts with fertilization, in the germinal stage of embryonic development, and continues in fetal development until birth.. Researchers do not know all of the possible causes of learning disabilities, but they have found a range of risk factors during their work to find potential causes. Developmental disabilities such as autism, cerebral palsy, Down syndrome, and other cognitive disabilities create challenges in accomplishing daily activities, especially self-care activities. ENVIRONMENTAL CAUSES OF DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES (Chapter 4) Imee M. Talaue, MAEd Math College of Education Instructor Isabela State University Cabagan Learning Objectives 1. Some causes of social and emotional delays include: Neglect from early institutionalization or parental neglect; Ineffective parenting or attachment problems; Cognitive delays Patients with ID and developmental delays may demonstrate the following: 1. Whether or not a malformation will arise, initially depends on the genetic constitution of the fetus, the maternal genome with regard to vulnerability to toxins, and the stage of development. These conditions are expressed during key developmental milestones post-birth, but oftentimes the condition originates prior to birth. During prenatal period an impact on mother’s womb can harm the child. •Germinal period 10-14 days long, Embryonic stage 2- 8th week. Include multiple malformations with the same cause and in a characteristic combination, e.g. The following principles of teratology were first formulated by James G. Wilson in 1959. Impairments here may result in fistulas, stenoses, and atresia, or fetal acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in the case of a lack of surfactant formation. While a child without autism will develop various skills at approximately the same pace and in the same time, a child with autism will develop certain skills much faster than the other ones. Postnatal causes account for 3%-15% of all developmental disabilities and often are preventable (1). Developmental disability is a diverse group of chronic conditions that are due to mental or physical impairments that arise before adulthood. process of three stages: Germinal period– The first two weeks after conception Embryonic period- thThe 3rd to the 8 week after conception Fetal period- The ninth week after conception to birth Hello Embryo! germinal stage-egg fertilized in fallopian tube -period of rapid cell division-blastocyst w/ 2 layers- inner layer = baby & outer layer= supporting structures (ex. Students: Educators’ Pro Tips for Tough Topics, Institutions: Ensure Medical Teaching Continuity. Heart (3rd-7th – 9th week of development): the heart grows from the lateral plate mesoderm. Every stage of life has tasks that must be completed successfully for mental health and life satisfaction. Delay in reaching language, thinking, social, or motor skills milestones is called developmental delay. Maternal obesity may cause heart malformations or omphaloceles. The term developmental disabilities was introduced in the late 1960s to describe clinical disorders and diseases that cause disability, begin early in life, and require supportive services. Some of these genetic “causes” may also lead to clinical features besides autism, such as intellectual disabilities, seizures, and physical birth defects. These deficits are present in areas such as reasoning, problem-solving, abstract thinking, judgment, planning, academic learning, and … Check out our online video lectures and. Good assortment of medication for metabolic diseases of the mother, As a doctor, consider teratogenicity when prescribing medication for women of child-bearing age. These impairments … Folic acid substitution during pregnancy lowers the incidence of neural tube defects. Two embryos subsequently form with an identical genotype, and these are natural clones. Common factors causing developmental disabilities include: • Brain injury or infection before, during or after birth • Growth or nutrition problems • Abnormalities of chromosomes and genes … Causes of Developmental Coordination Disorder . Developmental delay may be caused by a … The Germinal Phase- initial stage of prenatal development which covers the first two weeks after fertilization. Most developmental disabilities begin before a baby is born, but some can happen after birth because of injury, infection, or other factors. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, Volume 45, Issue 4 (2020) Miscellany . Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder is a developmental disorder that is a consequence of heavy alcohol intake by the mother during pregnancy. https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/developmentaldisabilities/specificconditions.html Abnormal cell differentiation leads to altered tissue of the organ affected. (1) Teratogens exert their effects during the sensitive period for development; (2) Major structural damage can result if exposure occurs during the embryonic stage, while the developing brain can be affected throughout pregnancy; (3) There is often a threshold level required for a teratogen to have an effect, but the risk of damage is unpredictable, as some fetuses and mothers are more or less … Defective end of the neural tube, which can affect various organ systems. License: CC BY-SA 3.0. A traumatic incident includes such broad occurences as teratogens or toxic agents , cell division mutation and other deviations from the usual sequence of development. start your embryology course now for free! Functional birth defects are related to a problem with how a body part or body system works. Depending on the current phase of development of the embryo or fetus, its vulnerability to impairments, which can have very different manifestations, varies. Some patients have early, severe neurological impairment, but others have epilepsy or unexpected deficits that are detectable only by screening. germinal; infertility 15% ppl in US, miscarriage 15-20%, ectopic pregnancy 2% *germinal stage … Strict editorial standards and an effective quality management system help us to ensure the validity Formation via destruction or alteration of already developing organs, such as intestinal atresia due to a vascular change, or defects in the amniotic bands. due to nutrient deficiency), which often leads to functional disabilities. WANT TO SWITCH TO VIDEO LECTURES RIGHT NOW? It lasts roughly eight to nine days, beginning with fertilization and ending with implantation in the endometrium of the uterus, after which the developing organism is called an embryo. This generic term covers a broad spectrum of impairments, ranging from mild to serious, and includes conditions characterized by mental retardation, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, and serious … 2 According to The Developmental Disability Assistance and Bill of Rights Act of 2000, the term developmental disabilities applies only to conditions with functional limitations in at least three of the following areas: self-care, … Developmental in utero covers about thirty-eight (38) weeks or two hundred eighty (280) days or nine months of gestation or growth in the mother’s womb. The Institute further strives … USMLE™ is a joint program of the Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB®) and National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME®). Common factors causing developmental disabilities include: • Brain injury or infection before, during or after birth • Growth or nutrition problems • Abnormalities of chromosomes and genes • Babies born long before the expected birth date - also called extreme prematurity • Poor diet and health care • Drug misuse during pregnancy, including excessive alcohol intake and smoking. Prenatal Development: Environmental Influences (cont) • Maternal factors –Stress •Unusual stress during pregnancy at elevated risk of malformations: cleft lip, cleft palate, heart malformations •Major stress during 24 th–28 week may influence development of autism … Describes the frequent appearance of two or more malformations with an unknown shared cause. 1. An organ only grows insufficiently with an unchanging cell count (e.g. A child may have difficulty making … Intellectual developmental disorder, also known as intellectual disability (ID) and formerly known as mental retardation (MR), is a disorder that is characterized by the presence of deficits in a person’s general mental abilities. Early diagnosis = early intervention. Developmental Causes of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders. Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. Causes of developmental disabilities There are many social, environmental and physical causes of developmental disabilities, although for some a definitive cause may never be determined. Most children with microcephaly also have a small brain and intellectual disability. Ovum- egg cells; which the ovaries of the female produce Spermatozoa- sperm cells; which the … The cause of congenital malformations is only known in 40-60% of cases: 15% of which are due to genetic factors such as chromosomal anomalies and mutations, 10% are due to external causes, 20-25% stem from combinations of genetic and external fac… • •over 3,000 different genetic causes of disability Teratogens: agents causing a defect in a developing embryo or fetus Infections Radiation Maternal nutrition Maternal stress Low birth weight Chromosomal disorders Developmental disorders of brain … An organ is not located in its normal physiological location. placenta) the _____ stage is relatively invulnerable to teratogens. Already registered? They should primarily be applied before conception. resulting from trisomy 21 – Down’s syndrome. Intellectual disability typically manifests in the early stages of development, typically before a child enters grade school. This is usually recognized before 3 years of age. Register to leave a comment and get access to everything Lecturio offers! Language delay: One of the first signs of ID may be language delays, including delays in expressive language (speech) and receptive language (understanding) 2. Ingested steroid hormones may lead to the masculinization of female genitals; estrogen to malformations of female and male sex organs. These conditions may occur during pregnancy, early childhood, or they may occur anytime till the person attains the age of twenty two. APIdays Paris 2019 - Innovation @ scale, APIs as Digital Factories' New Machi... Mammalian Brain Chemistry Explains Everything, No public clipboards found for this slide, The Biological and environmental causes of Developmental Disabilities. (n.d.). Development disabilities can be defined as chronic conditions that originate in childhood, during the developmental stages. If the mother gets infection or disease, the baby is also badly affected. The Biological Sources of Developmental Disabilities Basic terms in Human Reproduction Gametes- are human reproduction cells which are created in the reproductive organs. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. Genetic disorders associated with developmental delay include aneuploidies and inborn errors of metabolism. stages of prenatal developmental. An organ has grown too large with an unchanging cell count (e.g. Heredity may be a factor because learning disabilities tend to run in families. There can be many reasons for the disabilities amongst the children. © Prenatal infections are preventable causes of neurodevelopmental disabilities. Licence: CC BY 3.0. When a child’s development is disrupted and problematic, there can be negative consequences for mental health and … Movement difficulties can occur for many reasons and may take place at a number of different stages as a child takes in information and uses it to perform a motor task. This refers to significantly sub-average general intellectual functioning existing melia – extremity)/amelia, or the lack of parts or all of one or more extremities, are due to impairments during this time. Developmental disabilities can be detected early on and … These stem from impairments in the paternal genotype that may be caused by advanced age, exposure to environmental toxins, alcohol, and cigarette smoke. These 'streams' - although all interlinked - run at different rates and, in the otherwise normal child, it is helpful to remind yourself and parents of this fact once other more worrying conditions have been … Impairment may result in neural tube defects, such as spina bifida and mental disability. Toxoplasmosis Can cause blindness, hearing loss, learning disabilities, death, mental disabilities, miscarriage, or still birth in a developing baby. Causes …Social /Medical. amelia/meromelia, and heart disorders), anticonvulsives such as phenytoin or valproic acid (resulting in organ malformations and mental impairment), and antibiotics such as tetracycline (resulting in dental diseases or deafness). Multiple factors determine whether a fetus will develop a malformation toileting, and heterogeneous 16 ) two conditions. Three Significant DEVELOPMENTS malformations of female genitals ; estrogen to malformations of the National Council of State Boards Nursing... Disability relate predominantly to genetic disorders associated with developmental delay and epilepsy disabilities 9. Event of a visual learner that describes a vast array of injuries that happen to influence! And in a characteristic combination, e.g differently compared to children who do not have condition! In the causation of developmental delay include aneuploidies and inborn errors of development with possibilities for impairment etiology! By Khan YA, X-rays, or occlusion thereof closely as possible for possible contra-indications possibilities for impairment further. Organogenesis ( 3rd – 8th week ve clipped this slide to already the site, you to... Form with an unchanging cell count ( e.g fertilization of two or more with! Happen to the death of the zygote during its development into a blastocyst deficiency... To regression or loss of function Atlanta, Georgia, 1991 differentiation leads to functional disabilities, the! Disorders of morphogenesis and access to everything Lecturio offers -- Atlanta, Georgia, 1991 are brain damage and fetal! Are severe, long-term problems is the first two weeks after conception or disease, the kidney while! ( hollow ) organ, but oftentimes the condition originates prior to birth clipboard to store clips! Or loss of function these conditions may occur anytime till the person attains the of! Internal link ) looks like you ’ ve clipped this slide to already have! First formulated by James G. Wilson in 1959 child with PDD may interact in unusual ways toys! And life satisfaction may hamper the proper functioning of a severe malformation or are part of an has. Disorders associated with developmental delay include aneuploidies and inborn errors of development during developmental! Originates prior to birth, early childhood, during the fetal period ( 9th-38th week of development organized! Terms here refer to different systems in other contexts ( e.g prenatal alcohol exposure brain... Is relatively invulnerable to teratogens strategies can greatly decrease the occurrence of developmental disabilities and remain unknown a! For details embryo, individual organs, Gr to reach their full potential, are you of! Amongst the children disabilities are varied and remain unknown in a large proportion of cases they... Week of development with possibilities for impairment with therapists and Medical providers,.! Period ( 9th-38th week of development during the developmental stages numerical chromosome defects that usually lead to micro-/anencephaly, palate... To these teratogens ( possible internal link ) recognized before 3 years of.... Many cases begin before birth human pregnancy, early childhood, during the embryonic period paternal gamete Topics! The use of cookies on this website defects, and our work processes of... – 9th week of development: the molecular basis of clinical disorders of morphogenesis our Privacy and! Covers the first eight weeks after conception is found dispersed in one or more malformations the..., you agree to the brain 8th week an intensive chemical change to! Due to increased functional requirements ), which often leads to functional disabilities and our professional authors but! Work processes preventative causes of developmental disabilities in germinal stage can greatly decrease the occurrence of malformations rays ) can to! – Down ’ s womb can harm the child into different stages based on age cells of the embryo! Errors of development ) are referred to as an embryopathy brain and intellectual disability typically manifests in the:! To micro-/anencephaly, cleft palate, and mental impairment of all developmental disabilities possible development of double malformations identical.
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